World's smallest incandescent (nano)lamp with carbon nanotube filament

"Thermodynamics, the crown jewel of 19th-century physics, concerns systems with many particles. Quantum mechanics, developed in the 20th century, works best when applied to just a few."

.. heed that .. thermodynamics .. for .. systems with many particles .. quantum mechanics .. works best when applied to just a few particles .. what can you make out of that .. why did it stop you in your tracks ..

is it just a matter .. literally taken .. that as systems .. grew from few to many .. quantum mechanics .. surrendered the reigns to .. thermodynamics .. the quantum uncertainty ..evaporates .. becomes the certainty .. that surrounds us .. the physical objects we observe .. record and acknowledge .. they are like the sediments .. the solids .. of the process of evaporation .. the uncertainty evaporation ..leaving certainty at the bottom of the processes vessel ..

but processes as they are .. they are infused with ..uncertainty .. uncertainty evaporates but never vanishes .. it continues to overwhelm the realm .. what holds on their relationships .. the certainty sediments .. the objects proper ..

quantum weirdness .. never relinquished its hold .. wherever in a neighbourhood .. of few particles .. it is quantum mechanics that upholds its influence .. controls .. is in charge of the reigns ..

## Sunday, 16 October 2011

## Thursday, 13 October 2011

### Mathematics, the embodiment of logic and reason attempts a shot at intuition.

Experimental Mathematics and the Power of Computing

"But at the same time, the field of mathematics grew and deepened so much that today some questions appear to require additional capabilities beyond the human brain."

.. capabilities beyond the human brain .. required ..

"There is a growing consensus that human minds are fundamentally not very good at mathematics, and must be trained," says Bailey."

... must be trained ..

"Given this fact, the computer can be seen as a perfect complement to humans---we can intuit but not reliably calculate or manipulate; computers are not yet very good at intuition, but are great at calculations and manipulations."

.. we can intuit .. but not reliably calculate or manipulate .. computers are not yet very good at intuition .. but are great at calculations and manipulations..

.. artificial intelligence .. a computer .. computations .. algorithms .. that can intuit ..

.. the article puts .. a new perspective both .. on human brain .. and computer .. which I find .. deep and insightful .. down to earth .. mother-earthly talk ..

imperative .. the outcome .. a perspective shared and spread .. upon which .. social structures .. in its ever wider sense .. are worth erecting ..

"Although mathematics is said to be a "deductive science", mathematicians have always used exploration, whether through calculations or pictures, to test ideas and gain intuition, in much the same way that researchers in inductive sciences carry out experiments. Today, this inductive aspect of mathematics has grown through the use of computers, which have vastly increased the amount and type of exploration that can be done."

.. exploration .. intuition-driven .. unyielding .. and shamefacedless .. deeply entrenched

.. to test ideas and gain intuition .. intuition .. upon a ..better and ..better ground .. what has been ploughed .. by testing .. and keep testing ..ideas ..

..intuition .. its incisive surgical tools .. the raw power of our brain's neurons .. one that can be likened .. if not being .. quantum computation proper ..

"Computers are of course used to ease the burden of lengthy calculations, but they are also used for visualizing mathematical objects, discovering new relationships between such objects, and testing (and especially falsifying) conjectures."

... falsifying .. the dreaded tenet .. of reductive science .. faltering .. a Damocles sword .. a deterrent .. to keep at bay .. intuition ..

.. the necessity .. the forced .. ideas .. theories out of them .. to give the mechanisms .. the processes .. to falsify self

"A mathematician might also use a computer to explore a result to see whether it is worthwhile to attempt a proof. If it is, then sometimes the computer can give hints about how the proof might proceed. Bailey and Borwein use the term "experimental mathematics" to describe these kinds of uses of the computer in mathematics."

.. proof .. based upon .. on what it is known .. what is known .. out of concepts .. 'proven' to hold .. a poor grasp on reality ..

concepts that muddle ..attempts to elucidate .. the true inklings of reality ..

Chaotic Logic, Ben Goertzel, page 23,

"In mathematics, "chaos" is typically defined in terms of certain technical properties of dynamical systems. For instance, Devaney (1988) defines a time-discrete dynamical system to be chaotic if it possesses three properties: 1) sensitivity to initial conditions, 2) topological transitivity, and 3) density of periodic points.

On the other hand, the intuitive concept of chaos -- apparent randomness emergent from underlying determinism -- seems to have a meaning that goes beyond formal conditions of this sort. The mathematical definitions approximate the idea of chaos, but do not capture it.

In physical and mathematical applications of chaos theory, this is only a minor problem. One identifies chaos intuitively, then uses the formal definitions for detailed analysis. But when one seeks to apply chaos theory to psychological or social systems, the situation becomes more acute. Chaos appears intuitively to be present, but it is difficult to see the relevance of conditions such as topological transitivity and density of periodic points. Perhaps these conditions are met by

certain low-dimensional subsystems of the system in question, but if so, this fact would seem to have nothing to do with the method by which we make the educated guess that chaos is present.

"Chaos" has a pragmatic meaning that has transcends the details of point-set topology."

.. formal definitions .. in all their gamut .. mathematical definitions at the forefront .. from mere tools .. absolute and unquestionable ..

.. mathematics .. its tarnished past .. overriding axioms .. clockwork orange universes .. mechanistic outlooks ..

.. its death-gripping influence on society-building .. thrown of its pedestal .. now a kitten meekly prowling .. probing nature ..

.. no reason .. to bust intuition's balls ..

.. intuition .. chaos enabled ..

.. patterns revealed .. glimpses of .. universal and ubiquitous chaos .. but there remains .. to an extent .. proof-induced ignorance ..

.. to capture the essence of chaos ..

.. quantum computation .. intrinsic within .. hidden the ultimate chaos ..

superposition .. states .. propagated .. chaos-guided .. wholly under the auspices of chaos ..

to bear in mind .. the rules extracted by observing chaos .. in near and familiar environments ..

.. applied .. inspired .. hidden variables .. to acquire a body .. a suitable ground .. amenable for probing ..

unbridled ..intuition

to unlock .. hidden rooms ..

.. to startrek self .. seeking out final frontiers .. ding ..dang ..dong ..

proofs .. often being .. the locks .. that keep away intuition .. no-trespassing rules ..ahoy .. forbidden rooms

without suggesting that either .. can not live together .. fit and complete ..one ..another ..

"But at the same time, the field of mathematics grew and deepened so much that today some questions appear to require additional capabilities beyond the human brain."

.. capabilities beyond the human brain .. required ..

"There is a growing consensus that human minds are fundamentally not very good at mathematics, and must be trained," says Bailey."

... must be trained ..

"Given this fact, the computer can be seen as a perfect complement to humans---we can intuit but not reliably calculate or manipulate; computers are not yet very good at intuition, but are great at calculations and manipulations."

.. we can intuit .. but not reliably calculate or manipulate .. computers are not yet very good at intuition .. but are great at calculations and manipulations..

.. artificial intelligence .. a computer .. computations .. algorithms .. that can intuit ..

.. the article puts .. a new perspective both .. on human brain .. and computer .. which I find .. deep and insightful .. down to earth .. mother-earthly talk ..

imperative .. the outcome .. a perspective shared and spread .. upon which .. social structures .. in its ever wider sense .. are worth erecting ..

"Although mathematics is said to be a "deductive science", mathematicians have always used exploration, whether through calculations or pictures, to test ideas and gain intuition, in much the same way that researchers in inductive sciences carry out experiments. Today, this inductive aspect of mathematics has grown through the use of computers, which have vastly increased the amount and type of exploration that can be done."

.. exploration .. intuition-driven .. unyielding .. and shamefacedless .. deeply entrenched

.. to test ideas and gain intuition .. intuition .. upon a ..better and ..better ground .. what has been ploughed .. by testing .. and keep testing ..ideas ..

..intuition .. its incisive surgical tools .. the raw power of our brain's neurons .. one that can be likened .. if not being .. quantum computation proper ..

"Computers are of course used to ease the burden of lengthy calculations, but they are also used for visualizing mathematical objects, discovering new relationships between such objects, and testing (and especially falsifying) conjectures."

... falsifying .. the dreaded tenet .. of reductive science .. faltering .. a Damocles sword .. a deterrent .. to keep at bay .. intuition ..

.. the necessity .. the forced .. ideas .. theories out of them .. to give the mechanisms .. the processes .. to falsify self

"A mathematician might also use a computer to explore a result to see whether it is worthwhile to attempt a proof. If it is, then sometimes the computer can give hints about how the proof might proceed. Bailey and Borwein use the term "experimental mathematics" to describe these kinds of uses of the computer in mathematics."

.. proof .. based upon .. on what it is known .. what is known .. out of concepts .. 'proven' to hold .. a poor grasp on reality ..

concepts that muddle ..attempts to elucidate .. the true inklings of reality ..

Chaotic Logic, Ben Goertzel, page 23,

"In mathematics, "chaos" is typically defined in terms of certain technical properties of dynamical systems. For instance, Devaney (1988) defines a time-discrete dynamical system to be chaotic if it possesses three properties: 1) sensitivity to initial conditions, 2) topological transitivity, and 3) density of periodic points.

On the other hand, the intuitive concept of chaos -- apparent randomness emergent from underlying determinism -- seems to have a meaning that goes beyond formal conditions of this sort. The mathematical definitions approximate the idea of chaos, but do not capture it.

In physical and mathematical applications of chaos theory, this is only a minor problem. One identifies chaos intuitively, then uses the formal definitions for detailed analysis. But when one seeks to apply chaos theory to psychological or social systems, the situation becomes more acute. Chaos appears intuitively to be present, but it is difficult to see the relevance of conditions such as topological transitivity and density of periodic points. Perhaps these conditions are met by

certain low-dimensional subsystems of the system in question, but if so, this fact would seem to have nothing to do with the method by which we make the educated guess that chaos is present.

"Chaos" has a pragmatic meaning that has transcends the details of point-set topology."

.. formal definitions .. in all their gamut .. mathematical definitions at the forefront .. from mere tools .. absolute and unquestionable ..

.. mathematics .. its tarnished past .. overriding axioms .. clockwork orange universes .. mechanistic outlooks ..

.. its death-gripping influence on society-building .. thrown of its pedestal .. now a kitten meekly prowling .. probing nature ..

.. no reason .. to bust intuition's balls ..

.. intuition .. chaos enabled ..

.. patterns revealed .. glimpses of .. universal and ubiquitous chaos .. but there remains .. to an extent .. proof-induced ignorance ..

.. to capture the essence of chaos ..

.. quantum computation .. intrinsic within .. hidden the ultimate chaos ..

superposition .. states .. propagated .. chaos-guided .. wholly under the auspices of chaos ..

to bear in mind .. the rules extracted by observing chaos .. in near and familiar environments ..

.. applied .. inspired .. hidden variables .. to acquire a body .. a suitable ground .. amenable for probing ..

unbridled ..intuition

to unlock .. hidden rooms ..

.. to startrek self .. seeking out final frontiers .. ding ..dang ..dong ..

proofs .. often being .. the locks .. that keep away intuition .. no-trespassing rules ..ahoy .. forbidden rooms

without suggesting that either .. can not live together .. fit and complete ..one ..another ..

## Tuesday, 11 October 2011

### Utter disbelief of our perceptions, required. Necessary and sufficient rules implied.

Beyond space-time: Welcome to phase space

"According to Smolin, relative locality saves the day. Let's say you were patient enough to wait around while a black hole evaporated, a process that could take billions of years. Once it had vanished, you could ask what happened to, say, an elephant that once succumbed to its gravitational grip. But as you look back to the time at which you thought the elephant had fallen in, you would find that locations in space-time had grown so fuzzy and uncertain that there would be no way to tell whether the elephant actually fell into the black hole or narrowly missed it. The information-loss paradox dissolves."

.. as you look back to the time .. you thought the elephant had fallen in .. you would find that locations in space-time had grown so fuzzy and uncertain .. that there would be no way to tell whether the elephant actually fell into the black hole or narrowly missed it ..

.. grown fuzzy and uncertain .. superposition .. quantum mechanical approach .. what has effected its collapse it is no more .. the observation act .. the observer .. the observed event .. 'diluted' into a superposition .. and as such it requires another act .. observing act .. to reveal its outcome .. fallen-in or near miss ..

..what if .. it is caught-on-tape .. or .. on a smartphone .. the observation act remains .. unshakeable witness ..

.. conclusions defy perceptions .. perceptions are built ..out of held ..conceptions

.. what we have conceived determines what we will perceive .. the concepts fathomed will give the flavour .. the taste of our perceptions

paradoxes, nothing more than a tool to (-----) our perceptions .. to (------) what? .. undermine .. poke .. re-trace them .. re-direct them .. adjust ..re-adjust ..

.. the riding, galloping upon a disbelief of our very own perceptions .. what is perceived .. is doubted http://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gif

Researchers may have solved information loss paradox to find black holes do not form

"The masses on the edge of the incipient black hole continue to appear into infinity that they are collapsing but never fall over inside what is known as the event horizon, the region from which there is no return, according to the researchers."

.. black holes fractal ..

Quantum Zeno Effect and the Burning Bush

"A fractal used to explain the paradoxes of Zeno of Elea — a movement can become impossible if its distance is recurrently divided into smaller pieces. The girl is assumed to walk three times as fast as the turtle, but whenever she turns a corner the turtle will, too. Even though she is faster, she will not see the turtle within a finite number of turns."

"According to Smolin, relative locality saves the day. Let's say you were patient enough to wait around while a black hole evaporated, a process that could take billions of years. Once it had vanished, you could ask what happened to, say, an elephant that once succumbed to its gravitational grip. But as you look back to the time at which you thought the elephant had fallen in, you would find that locations in space-time had grown so fuzzy and uncertain that there would be no way to tell whether the elephant actually fell into the black hole or narrowly missed it. The information-loss paradox dissolves."

.. as you look back to the time .. you thought the elephant had fallen in .. you would find that locations in space-time had grown so fuzzy and uncertain .. that there would be no way to tell whether the elephant actually fell into the black hole or narrowly missed it ..

.. grown fuzzy and uncertain .. superposition .. quantum mechanical approach .. what has effected its collapse it is no more .. the observation act .. the observer .. the observed event .. 'diluted' into a superposition .. and as such it requires another act .. observing act .. to reveal its outcome .. fallen-in or near miss ..

..what if .. it is caught-on-tape .. or .. on a smartphone .. the observation act remains .. unshakeable witness ..

.. conclusions defy perceptions .. perceptions are built ..out of held ..conceptions

.. what we have conceived determines what we will perceive .. the concepts fathomed will give the flavour .. the taste of our perceptions

paradoxes, nothing more than a tool to (-----) our perceptions .. to (------) what? .. undermine .. poke .. re-trace them .. re-direct them .. adjust ..re-adjust ..

.. the riding, galloping upon a disbelief of our very own perceptions .. what is perceived .. is doubted http://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gif

Researchers may have solved information loss paradox to find black holes do not form

"The masses on the edge of the incipient black hole continue to appear into infinity that they are collapsing but never fall over inside what is known as the event horizon, the region from which there is no return, according to the researchers."

.. black holes fractal ..

Quantum Zeno Effect and the Burning Bush

"A fractal used to explain the paradoxes of Zeno of Elea — a movement can become impossible if its distance is recurrently divided into smaller pieces. The girl is assumed to walk three times as fast as the turtle, but whenever she turns a corner the turtle will, too. Even though she is faster, she will not see the turtle within a finite number of turns."

## Wednesday, 5 October 2011

### Strong light floods superposition 'machine' in electrons, in photosynthesis. Plants biologically challenged.

Quantum life: The weirdness inside us

"Indeed, when he wrote his 1944 book What is Life?, he speculated that living organisms would do everything they could to block out the fuzziness of quantum physics."

.. a deterrent .. detracts us .. from being .. what our structures ought to be ..

.. filtering out .. quantum weirdness ..

"Is that plausible? We have around 400 differently shaped smell receptors, but can recognise around 100,000 smells, implying some nifty computation to combine signals from different receptors and process them into distinct smells."

400 receptors .. 100,000 smells .. nifty computation .. quantum computing ..

"There is an alternative explanation. Around 70 years ago, even before the lock-and-key mechanism was suggested, the distinguished British chemist Malcolm Dyson suggested that, just as the brain constructs colours from different vibrational frequencies of light radiation, it interprets the characteristic frequencies at which certain molecules vibrate as a catalogue of smells."

.. molecule vibration .. frequencies .. waves ..

"The idea languished in obscurity until 1996, when Luca Turin, a biophysicist then at University College London, proposed a mechanism that might make vibrational sensing work: electron tunnelling. This phenomenon results from the basic fuzziness of quantum mechanics, and is a staple of devices from microchips to microscopes. When an electron is confined in an atom, it does not have an exactly defined energy but has a spread of possible energies. That means there is a certain probability that it will simply burrow through the energy barrier that would normally prevent it escaping the atom."

.. a spread of possible energies .. superposition ..afforded .. min ..max .. if such terms apply .. extend beyond energy barrier .. what is witnessed as .. burrow .. a normal consequence of its state .. superposed states ..

superposition cancelled .. electrons can not escape .. out of their nuclear trajectories .. atoms remain intact .. the world is safe .. it will not disintegrate .. obliterate .. the probability .. small .. very small .. tiny

"Turin's idea is that when an odorous molecule lodges in the pocket of a receptor, an electron can burrow right through that molecule from one side to the other, unleashing a cascade of signals on the other side that the brain interprets as a smell. That can only happen if there is an exact match between the electron's quantised energy level and the odorant's natural vibrational frequency. "The electron can only move when all the conditions are met," Turin says. The advantage, though, is that it creates a smell without the need for an exact shape fit."

.. exact match .. electron's quantised energy level .. and .. odorant's natural vibrational frequency .. resonate .. blending through .. a condition .. a path .. a tunnel open .. quantum energy level ..wave ..its frequency exact match with odorant molecule's frequency .. the carrier wave .. within the superposed range of energies of the electron ..extending the reach .. to where the electron burrows .. taking it right through the odored molecule ..

"And in January this year Turin, now at the Alexander Fleming Biomedical Sciences Research Centre in Vari, Greece, and his colleagues delivered what looks like evidence for vibrational sensing. They showed that fruit flies can distinguish between two types of acetophenone, a common base for perfumes, when one contains normal hydrogen and the other contains heavier deuterium. Both forms have the same shape, but vibrate at different frequencies (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1012293108). That sensitivity can only mean electron tunnelling, says Andrew Horsfield of Imperial College London, a co-author on Brookes's paper: in classical models of electron flow the electron would not be sensitive to the vibrational frequency. "You can't explain it without the quantum aspect."

acetophenone .. C6H5C(O)CH3 .. fruit flies distinguish between normal hydrogen and heavier deuterium types .. different vibrational frequencies .. classical electron flow .. electron energies restricted to their quantised energy level .. can not explain the phenomenon .. whereas electrons with energies spread within a range beyond the restricting energy level .. are able to 'tell' the difference between the normal and deuterium acetophone molecules, to distinguish them out of their different vibrational frequencies ..

"Vedral thinks this is because it depends on the quality of "superposition" which allows the sort of quantum-mechanical wave that describes electrons to be in two places at once. He reckons quantum omnipresence might speed the electrons' passage through the reaction chain. "If you could show superposition is there and it's somehow also important for the electron flow, that would be very interesting," he says."

.. quantum omnipresence .. what a delightful thought .. electrons superposition afforded .. omnipresence

"This is a trick we might like to learn from. Although photosynthesis is not particularly efficient overall, the initial stage of converting incoming photons into the energy of electrons within a photosynthesising organism's light-gathering pigment molecules is extremely effective. When sunlight is weak, plants are able to translate more than 90 per cent of photons into an energy-carrying electron; in strong sunlight plants have to dump about half the energy to avoid overheating."

.. sunlight weak, plants take more than 90 per cent of photons into an energy-carrying electron .. extremely efficient .. when light is weak .. but in strong sunlight it creates so much energy ..that the plant risks its very own survival .. dumps energy .. the mechanism developed does not suit its structure .. the plant's physiology unsuitable ..

it can not manage .. too much light .. possibly today's dominant plant species .. evolved in an era with conditions with very little light .. a sky obscured with dust .. possibly because of the meteorite that fell upon earth and caused the extinction of dinosaurs .. today's plants ..biologically challenged ..

"Scholes's explanation for this is that when sunlight hits electrons, they are kicked into a quantum superposition that allows them to be in two places at once. That effectively "wires" light-gathering molecules to the reaction centre where the photosynthesis takes place for a few hundred femtoseconds. During that time, an electron can, according to quantum rules, take all paths between the two places simultaneously. Probing the process more closely causes the superposition to collapse - and reveals the electron to have taken the path that lost it the least energy."

.. quantum superposition .. and its quality referred to ..earlier .. quality ..out of quantity .. the quantity of light present .. strong light floods superposition ..machine .. electrons .. highly energetic .. superposition thus controlled .. probabilities increased .. probability to burrow through an energy barrier .. increased .. tunnelling occurs .. and it occurs in the most effective way possible .. has taken the path that lost the least energy ..

superposition ..machine .. "wires" .. light gathering molecules .. their vibrational frequencies .. exact matches .. with the quantised electron energies .. of the electrons engaged in electron transfer complex .. as in odorant molecules .. spread electron energies .. electron tunnelling "wires" ..

a superposition 'channel' .. built to fulfil the purpose .. of transferring .. the most of the energy captured .. to the reaction centre .. with the least loss

"Indeed, when he wrote his 1944 book What is Life?, he speculated that living organisms would do everything they could to block out the fuzziness of quantum physics."

.. a deterrent .. detracts us .. from being .. what our structures ought to be ..

.. filtering out .. quantum weirdness ..

"Is that plausible? We have around 400 differently shaped smell receptors, but can recognise around 100,000 smells, implying some nifty computation to combine signals from different receptors and process them into distinct smells."

400 receptors .. 100,000 smells .. nifty computation .. quantum computing ..

"There is an alternative explanation. Around 70 years ago, even before the lock-and-key mechanism was suggested, the distinguished British chemist Malcolm Dyson suggested that, just as the brain constructs colours from different vibrational frequencies of light radiation, it interprets the characteristic frequencies at which certain molecules vibrate as a catalogue of smells."

.. molecule vibration .. frequencies .. waves ..

"The idea languished in obscurity until 1996, when Luca Turin, a biophysicist then at University College London, proposed a mechanism that might make vibrational sensing work: electron tunnelling. This phenomenon results from the basic fuzziness of quantum mechanics, and is a staple of devices from microchips to microscopes. When an electron is confined in an atom, it does not have an exactly defined energy but has a spread of possible energies. That means there is a certain probability that it will simply burrow through the energy barrier that would normally prevent it escaping the atom."

.. a spread of possible energies .. superposition ..afforded .. min ..max .. if such terms apply .. extend beyond energy barrier .. what is witnessed as .. burrow .. a normal consequence of its state .. superposed states ..

superposition cancelled .. electrons can not escape .. out of their nuclear trajectories .. atoms remain intact .. the world is safe .. it will not disintegrate .. obliterate .. the probability .. small .. very small .. tiny

"Turin's idea is that when an odorous molecule lodges in the pocket of a receptor, an electron can burrow right through that molecule from one side to the other, unleashing a cascade of signals on the other side that the brain interprets as a smell. That can only happen if there is an exact match between the electron's quantised energy level and the odorant's natural vibrational frequency. "The electron can only move when all the conditions are met," Turin says. The advantage, though, is that it creates a smell without the need for an exact shape fit."

.. exact match .. electron's quantised energy level .. and .. odorant's natural vibrational frequency .. resonate .. blending through .. a condition .. a path .. a tunnel open .. quantum energy level ..wave ..its frequency exact match with odorant molecule's frequency .. the carrier wave .. within the superposed range of energies of the electron ..extending the reach .. to where the electron burrows .. taking it right through the odored molecule ..

"And in January this year Turin, now at the Alexander Fleming Biomedical Sciences Research Centre in Vari, Greece, and his colleagues delivered what looks like evidence for vibrational sensing. They showed that fruit flies can distinguish between two types of acetophenone, a common base for perfumes, when one contains normal hydrogen and the other contains heavier deuterium. Both forms have the same shape, but vibrate at different frequencies (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1012293108). That sensitivity can only mean electron tunnelling, says Andrew Horsfield of Imperial College London, a co-author on Brookes's paper: in classical models of electron flow the electron would not be sensitive to the vibrational frequency. "You can't explain it without the quantum aspect."

acetophenone .. C6H5C(O)CH3 .. fruit flies distinguish between normal hydrogen and heavier deuterium types .. different vibrational frequencies .. classical electron flow .. electron energies restricted to their quantised energy level .. can not explain the phenomenon .. whereas electrons with energies spread within a range beyond the restricting energy level .. are able to 'tell' the difference between the normal and deuterium acetophone molecules, to distinguish them out of their different vibrational frequencies ..

"Vedral thinks this is because it depends on the quality of "superposition" which allows the sort of quantum-mechanical wave that describes electrons to be in two places at once. He reckons quantum omnipresence might speed the electrons' passage through the reaction chain. "If you could show superposition is there and it's somehow also important for the electron flow, that would be very interesting," he says."

.. quantum omnipresence .. what a delightful thought .. electrons superposition afforded .. omnipresence

"This is a trick we might like to learn from. Although photosynthesis is not particularly efficient overall, the initial stage of converting incoming photons into the energy of electrons within a photosynthesising organism's light-gathering pigment molecules is extremely effective. When sunlight is weak, plants are able to translate more than 90 per cent of photons into an energy-carrying electron; in strong sunlight plants have to dump about half the energy to avoid overheating."

.. sunlight weak, plants take more than 90 per cent of photons into an energy-carrying electron .. extremely efficient .. when light is weak .. but in strong sunlight it creates so much energy ..that the plant risks its very own survival .. dumps energy .. the mechanism developed does not suit its structure .. the plant's physiology unsuitable ..

it can not manage .. too much light .. possibly today's dominant plant species .. evolved in an era with conditions with very little light .. a sky obscured with dust .. possibly because of the meteorite that fell upon earth and caused the extinction of dinosaurs .. today's plants ..biologically challenged ..

"Scholes's explanation for this is that when sunlight hits electrons, they are kicked into a quantum superposition that allows them to be in two places at once. That effectively "wires" light-gathering molecules to the reaction centre where the photosynthesis takes place for a few hundred femtoseconds. During that time, an electron can, according to quantum rules, take all paths between the two places simultaneously. Probing the process more closely causes the superposition to collapse - and reveals the electron to have taken the path that lost it the least energy."

.. quantum superposition .. and its quality referred to ..earlier .. quality ..out of quantity .. the quantity of light present .. strong light floods superposition ..machine .. electrons .. highly energetic .. superposition thus controlled .. probabilities increased .. probability to burrow through an energy barrier .. increased .. tunnelling occurs .. and it occurs in the most effective way possible .. has taken the path that lost the least energy ..

superposition ..machine .. "wires" .. light gathering molecules .. their vibrational frequencies .. exact matches .. with the quantised electron energies .. of the electrons engaged in electron transfer complex .. as in odorant molecules .. spread electron energies .. electron tunnelling "wires" ..

a superposition 'channel' .. built to fulfil the purpose .. of transferring .. the most of the energy captured .. to the reaction centre .. with the least loss

## Sunday, 2 October 2011

### Chaos pays attention to details. Details hide within the novel attributes of systems to have.

Chaotic Logic p.6

"The ideas of this book proceed from an alternative point of view: that complex, self-organizing systems, while unpredictable on the level of detail, "

.. what passes as detail .. within it hidden .. easily overlooked .. what makes chaos exciting .. the minutiae .. the insignificant .. the tiny .. the small .. needles and tacks in haystacks .. that once they are triggered ..removed from the foreshadows .. poked and embellished ..

(I feel like Pythia .. the soothsayer .. a seemingly or apparently incoherent ramble .. while in some sort of trance)

.. details turn everything upside-down .. the potential .. out of .. what is taken as details .. try and test systems .. annihilate ..and devastate .. only to emerge as the new ..novel state of the system .. under a new regime of attributes .. peace and tranquillity ..afforded .. the system has been rocked to its foundations .. the system emerged triumphant .. the shaky foundations .. have outlived their usefulness .. replaced with more trusted, rock-solid support .. to last longer .. embedded as they are .. in hardy .. out of bouts of trying and testing .. proving their worthiness ..

"... are interestingly predictable on the level of structure. This what differentiates them from simple dynamical systems that are almost entirely unpredictable on the level of structure as well as the level of detail.

.. predictable .. straight out of what has been suggested by the author .. a couple of paragraphs before..

"All these systems have one novel property in common: whatever state one starts the system in at "time zero," the odds are that before long the system will converge on a certain region of state space called the "attractor". The states of the system will then fluctuate around the "attractor" region forever, apparently at random. This is "chaos," a remarkable, intriguing phenomenon -- and a phenomenon which, on the surface at least, appears to have little to do with complex, self-organizing systems."

.. predicting the state an entity acquires .. out of.. '..the odds are that before long the system will converge on a certain region of state space called the "attractor."' .. structure built ..out of the "attractors" .. as the processes involved .. favour the system states that belong in the state space occupied by the "attractors" .. "attractors" influenced structure .. permanency at bay .. perceived as order ..

"The ideas of this book proceed from an alternative point of view: that complex, self-organizing systems, while unpredictable on the level of detail, "

.. what passes as detail .. within it hidden .. easily overlooked .. what makes chaos exciting .. the minutiae .. the insignificant .. the tiny .. the small .. needles and tacks in haystacks .. that once they are triggered ..removed from the foreshadows .. poked and embellished ..

(I feel like Pythia .. the soothsayer .. a seemingly or apparently incoherent ramble .. while in some sort of trance)

.. details turn everything upside-down .. the potential .. out of .. what is taken as details .. try and test systems .. annihilate ..and devastate .. only to emerge as the new ..novel state of the system .. under a new regime of attributes .. peace and tranquillity ..afforded .. the system has been rocked to its foundations .. the system emerged triumphant .. the shaky foundations .. have outlived their usefulness .. replaced with more trusted, rock-solid support .. to last longer .. embedded as they are .. in hardy .. out of bouts of trying and testing .. proving their worthiness ..

"... are interestingly predictable on the level of structure. This what differentiates them from simple dynamical systems that are almost entirely unpredictable on the level of structure as well as the level of detail.

.. predictable .. straight out of what has been suggested by the author .. a couple of paragraphs before..

"All these systems have one novel property in common: whatever state one starts the system in at "time zero," the odds are that before long the system will converge on a certain region of state space called the "attractor". The states of the system will then fluctuate around the "attractor" region forever, apparently at random. This is "chaos," a remarkable, intriguing phenomenon -- and a phenomenon which, on the surface at least, appears to have little to do with complex, self-organizing systems."

.. predicting the state an entity acquires .. out of.. '..the odds are that before long the system will converge on a certain region of state space called the "attractor."' .. structure built ..out of the "attractors" .. as the processes involved .. favour the system states that belong in the state space occupied by the "attractors" .. "attractors" influenced structure .. permanency at bay .. perceived as order ..

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