Structuralism in linguistics
"In Ferdinand de Saussure's Course in General Linguistics (written by Saussure's colleagues after his death and based on student notes), the analysis focuses not on the use of language (called "parole", or speech), but rather on the underlying system of language (called "langue").
.. underlying system of language .. language as a system .. a network .. out of entities ..organised .. in systems/subsystems .. networks/subnetworks .. organised under .. a multilevel control methodology .. a model that mind organises itself by .. hierarchical levels along with heterarchical networks .. the heterarchy of the elements of language .. as they attain their .. "signifier" and "signified" portions .. interconnecting .. co-evolving .. but to their own ends ..
"This approach examines how the elements of language relate to each other in the present, synchronically rather than diachronically."
synchronically .. interconnection implied .. development 'flows' synchronised revealing .. an underlying fine tuning .. to simultaneous arrival .. to ever precise meanings ..
"Saussure argued that linguistic signs were composed of two parts:
a "signifier" (the "sound pattern" of a word, either in mental projection—as when one silently recites lines from a poem to one's self—or in actual, physical realization as part of a speech act)"
the "signifier" .. the grammatical form .. developed out .. the word formation rules .. which enable the words to physically realize .. that a language provides
"a "signified" (the concept or meaning of the word)"
the "signified" .. a pliable .. dynamic .. ever-evolving approach .. that detach the meaning attributed .. away from idealistic considerations that distract from their natural discourse .. and appropriate to longitudinal language development .. a collective effort .. by all language practitioners .. and its latitudinal language development ..as each individual attains its own language ..
"This was quite different from previous approaches that focused on the relationship between words and the things in the world that they designate."
..implying ..learning from above .. given but not taken .. external to individual .. individual robbed of its potential .. to develop its own language .. and subsequently to contribute .. to the longitudinal language development