Friday, 31 December 2010

nooks and crannies ..

nooks and crannies ..

"All other colors will have wavelengths that are not exact multiples of the oil-slick thickness at that location, and they will not add up constructively. This familiar phenomenon is termed "interference" and is a signature property of waves."

the deluge of thoughts that came into mind while reading these two pages, p.24-25 out of the book of James Kakalios "The Amazing Story of Quantum Mechanics"

.. is inconceivable which at first glance it shouts out that it should not merit a further look, should be dismissed as incoherent blurting out of a play of connecting disparate and distant thoughts that barely have a common ground, lacking the obvious commonsensical approach.

Jumping back and forth, from so disparate and distant concepts. Each one on its own merit.

Wavelength, where waves meet up with ..distance? Length? Position? Matter? Objects? Attribute depth, height, width to our world ..distance is assumed by the speed the wave travels, firms up in our mind the sense of distance and by that the depth of our world from familiar, our immediate surroundings to the out-worldly distant, to the edge of the universe as is surmised by the cosmic microwave background radiation.

The universe itself is played out in the minds of people like a child's toy which despite its correctness or not, forces the mind to adjust its outlook to what it sees. And the mind sees, what the eyes see, the 'constructive' quality, out of the interference of waves, the essence. What underpins how the world appears to us.

Merely based on the fact, of the way enters into the minds of people, the perception apparent, forces the mind to make sense accordingly. Constructed out, of in-phase waves, that denotes existence, and when waves do not interfere constructively, that includes all other parts within their total spectrum of their phase, non-existent. A digital approach in the way we observe the universe. The 0 and 1, existence and non-existence, played out by waves. De Broglie waves.

Our notions of volume, dimensions, space 'constructed' out of the wave interference. Re-arrange the concepts associated with the previous outlook to accommodate the newly found notions. Notions of branes, our entire universe contained in paper-thin sheets, planes cross-interacting with one another.

.. an incomprehensible task, formidable

.. tries and tests the mind, goes beyond the wildest imagination

... seeing our surroundings under a new light

Saturday, 18 December 2010

Frozen Universe. Time traversed in a similar manner as space is.

"This means that the future can never be predicted in all its details, and that the future of the Universe is not irredeemably fixed."

The thought just crossed my mind, at what advantage point can a human individual assert such notion. Whether the notion 'future' bears any relevance, assists in fathoming 'Universe' and Nature as such.

Why not, since its inception the Universe expanded, not only by its space-like components but, its time-like components also. The idea of a frozen universe brought forth as human individuals started contemplating on it. And time as such, only traversed in the same way as space is traversed from one end to the other.

Time a continuum not different than space. Future, present and past merely a human condition.

While these thoughts brought to bear in this haphazard post, a lapse of concentration, one way to call such act, led me in. As if my search to know, the closure required by the thoughts on this subject, drove me in a furtive look on something I pondered in the past, and got me hooked. Supplement, originary lack and invagination. Is it what it goes around here? Supplementation involved in the notion of time the human mind has in store?

Supplement, the ".. inessential extra added to something complete in itself." The notion of time, the 'inessential extra', its past, future, present attributes stripped out completely, leaving out time bare to stand on its ..own feet, then what is left? What time stand-out as different than space? Then why not being traversed in a similar manner as space is?

Dimensionality? The familiar of space, attributed in a similar manner for time? And the familiar time attributes of future, present and past be looked at from the viewpoint of the dimensionality attributes of space. And the space orthogonal perspective being carried on, on time. To make sense out of the notion of past, future and present as orthogonal to each other. And even further, whatever applies for the attributes of time to be carried over and be applied for the attributes of space. The arrow of time device revised? Attributed with the orthogonality apparent to space dimensions.

Space and time separate, and time not seen as another dimension added to space. The notion of spacetime ..un-manageable? Nonsensical?

An image of a frozen universe?

Taken from post, depicting the entire history of the universe. The mind enters anywhere in that vast expanse, narrowed down to the few centimetres it occupies on the screen. Plays out all sorts of stories as it traverses time.

A playground for the mind to delve. Consciousness fulfilled.

Monday, 13 December 2010

Cosmic calculator. Irrational numbers, precision faulters, spawn chaos.

"It is impossible for nature herself to 'know' the state of the Universe to the required precision."

In John Gribbin's "Q is for Quantum, Particle Physics from A to Z", entry for 'Chaos'

Precision and predictability. Predicting the outcome a certain behaviour in a system would lead to, branding a behaviour as unpredictable or not. Leading to chaos or order, the eternal conundrum. Precise calculations required of the state in a system, the parametric descriptors of the state, the system is, that define the conditions prevailing in the system. Parameters as quantities to be measured, assigned to be completed by a number-crunching entity, a calculator, hand-held or not, which its operators employ to produce a value which would feed into their formulas describing functions defining future states of systems under observation.

Nature herself employs a similar, but attuned to its overwhelming size, cosmic calculator. Its role to achieve a similar feat, that the human individual counterparts attempt to elucidate observed systems states, discerning their lapse into chaos or not.

Cosmic calculator, emphasized entity to produce the numbers at a cosmic scale dealing with infinities that will be fed into the laws of nature to determine the fate of the universe in every time scale possible, envisaged, imagined.

A tool employed in understanding the workings of nature, the notion of position the meaning conferred and the devise of numbers to ascertain such meaning, the relationships existing between quantities expressed as parameters as if nature herself relies upon the notions human individuals invented to make meaningful nature to themselves.

Human individuals in their efforts to understand nature, their methods employed mirroring nature's own workings, out of the same blueprint according to the law of self-similarity. Nature herself is unable to confer the precision required, amenable to predictability, predictability the essence of evolution in a cosmic scale. Nature attempts to predict the outcome of the laws is endowed with, predictability determines the very structures favoured by the laws themselves. And nature runs into trouble as she is faced with a daunting task even for an entity as mighty as her. Precision evades her in the face of irrational numbers.

"To take just one simple example, known to the Ancient Greeks, the very concept of labelling the points on a straight line is an approximation to the truth. To label every point on a line (no matter how short the line is) you would need an infinite number of numbers. In the interval from 0 to 1, many of the points can be expressed in terms of the familiar fractions, such as 1/2 or 1/4 (or by less familiar fractions, such as 137/731). But some of the points can only be represented by 'irrational' numbers which cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers in a fraction, and which require an infinite number of digits after the decimal point in order to be described fully."

An infinite number of digits, precision evaded, predictability un-achievable, unpredictable behaviour, chaos itself prevailing. In essence systems at that breakpoint separate into chaotic and non-chaotic behaviour. For what a position stabilises into a halt, a stop, a whole fraction, such a point provides an anchor for the state of the system to materialise. Its linear evolution becomes possible, a discernible pattern emerges. For any other position where its precision is impossible due to the appearance of irrational numbers in the presented 'solutions', confers unpredictability, system prevailing behaviour chaotic.

Fibonacci numbers, their implication in chaos, their involvement in the make-up of the irrational solutions might raise notions about their implied involvement.

Critical values of defining parameters in a system, the points where parameter relationships are defined by solutions running into the realm of irrational numbers. Precision affected, predictability compromised, chaotic behaviour ensues.

Chaotic behaviour ends, as the device of cosmic calculator, in running through the irrational number calculated provides a solution amenable to states involved, order emerges.

Thursday, 25 November 2010

Conceptualising the vagueness out of the notion of energy.

A clue to unravel the comings of energy itself, the very essence of it, by toying with ideas, being brought forth by the recent breakthrough mentioned in the article 'Antimatter Trapped For the First Time'.

Aiming at explaining energy, what is energy, digging out and down to the origins, the very beginnings of universe itself. As it appears, energy pre-exists all of the fundamental entities. Matter, and antimatter for that ..matter, space and time included, appeared in the scene, called universe, emerged after the primordial ..soup was created. Energy being the real fundamental of all fundamentals, energy pre-existing the very universe itself.

Clues dug out of that article, to be used as fodder for what to come out of such an endeavour

"This a big step. First, it gets humanity closer to understanding one of the biggest mysteries of the Universe: What happened to all the antimatter that was created during the Big Bang?

"In theory, matter and antimatter were created in equal parts during the Big Bang. However, the latter disappeared shortly thereafter."

- Matter, antimatter created to 'house' energy. Energy confined within their narrow or not, domains. Harnessing energy, giving energy substance and purpose(?). From a state-less state to a state ..ready-to-act. Entities with purpose.

Or at least, we can't seem to find it. The spokesman for CERN's ALPHA experiment—Jeffrey Hangst of Aarhus University, Denmark—says that trapping these atoms was a bit of an overwhelming experience:

- The breakthrough, in a universe of matter, the predominant entity for entrapment of energy, the antimatter created with the same purpose, hidden and elusive.

"What's new about Alpha is that now we've managed to hold on to those atoms. We have a magnetic bowl, kind of a bottle, that holds the antihydrogen [...]

"For reasons that no one yet understands, nature ruled out antimatter."

- 'Nature ruled out antimmatter'. A clue to the essence of energy hidden within this 'caprice' of nature. Nature had to accommodate to requirements that energy itself demanded? By being a pre-existing 'player' set the rules of the 'game', what nature had to follow? An as yet unknown reason dictated by the very essence of energy?

"It is thus very rewarding, and a bit overwhelming, to look at the ALPHA device and know that it contains stable, neutral atoms of antimatter."

The other reason why this is an important step is its potential to solve our need for unlimited energy.

One of the facts to dig out what energy is? Clues hidden in this assumption. What triggers such an unlimited supply of energy. A essential property of energy as yet un-revealed.

"When antihydrogen touches matter—as shown in the image above—it releases a huge amount of energy."

- The make-up of antimatter itself, or the reason why matter and antimatter had to be created in the first place, leading towards ideas to explain energy itself. The very fact of isolating antimatter as such, gaining first-hand knowledge by ..toying, experimenting with the samples manufactured that way. Hotfooting the breakthroughs achieved, as the were experienced in the fields of nanotechnology.

"Many scientists speculate that antimatter may be the key to provide unlimited power capable of driving machines that are unthinkable right now. Eventually, it could be the stuff that could power new engines capable of taking us to the stars at near-light speed."

- Unlimited power might be there, but the machines still primitive. Machines to use the energy provided by antimatter need to be invented.

"The energy per unit mass (9×1016 J/kg) is about 10 orders of magnitude greater than chemical energy, about 4 orders of magnitude greater than nuclear energy that can be liberated today using nuclear fission, and about 2 orders of magnitude greater than the best possible from fusion.

The reaction of 1 kilogram of antimatter with 1 kilogram of matter would produce 180 petajoules of energy or the rough equivalent of 43 megatons of TNT. For comparison, Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated, reacted an estimated yield of 50 megatons, which required the use of hundreds of kilograms of fissile material. Wikipedia"

- The amount of fuel required is getting smaller and smaller and the energy released larger and larger. The deeper the digging gets into nature the higher the potential presented.

Monday, 15 November 2010

Understanding entropy

understanding entropy

In language, words concepts vocabulary used, worked and re-worked into finer detail, in the minds of people or even in the mind of just an individual. The concept elaborated, the meaning it carries refined and in the process looses everything that does not apply in the meanings attributed. What does not comply with the states is used to explain. Debris discarded, junk thrown into a void, never to be visited again, surpassed by human knowledge. Entropy increased? Gives a measure of the notion of entropy? How it is derived and its proper significance? In the way that people would explain its occurrence?

Such a void is continually filled with discarded obsolete remnants of concepts overtaken by more robust, to the point concepts? A process that is ongoing, not only for language but for any complex system? The universe, nature itself? A thought sprung out from the idea put forth in R.D. Smith's 'Social Structures and Chaos Theory'(1998) extract.

"5.8 A connectionist model allows two kinds of patterns to be studied. The first is the pattern of the signals, communications or other influences which flow through the lattice. This shall be referred to as the flux pattern. ...

The pattern that is already present, out of the network of nodes existing at a particular chunk of space and within a well-defined time. the current status of affairs for the complex system.

5.9 The second kind of pattern which can be studied is defined by the architecture of the lattice itself: the pattern of connections among the various elements of the lattice and through which the signals propagate. This is known as the architecture, the matrix, or the lattice."

The architecture of the lattice connectedness provided, all the nodes of the network that participate in the several patterns that are possible, everything that defines complex systems. And its most enduring feature..

"The lattice places, for practical purposes, limits on what flux patterns are possible. The architecture allows us to differentiate plausible futures from implausible futures and, perhaps, from impossible futures."

The architecture of the lattice provides limits to what flux patterns are possible, what features still hold for complex systems. Trimming off the nodes of the networked complex systems, nodes that were once determining the states of complex systems, are no more. Obsolete, superseded all the patterns upon which complex systems relied upon now debris, junk representing the entropy of the systems. How the entropy in systems increases.

Since this is quite evident in human systems, all the junk that litters landfills as technology surpassing their use, they are now obsolete. The same goes in the sphere of ideas holding for the systems people use to govern their societies, how many of them have been abandoned, the noetic landfills, the ever increasing entropy of culture and civilisation.

I wander how would that notion can be applied in much wider scales, nature and the universe itself, what would its original use, of universe entropy and the laws of thermodynamics.

As, the architecture lattice gets smaller and smaller, that doesn't mean it runs out of space, but by getting deeper into microscales, diverging and converging into, bifurcating constantly, fractal notions enabled, the space upon which phases-states, develop reaches the quantum realm, revealing as yet undiscovered chunks.

Nano-technology's progress bears witness, and what about Moore's Law, how this could be accommodated along these notions.

Tuesday, 2 November 2010

chaos is not a condition an individual should shy away from .. the individual should seek out chaos .. .. RSA Animate - Changing Education Paradigms

chaos is not a condition an individual should shy away from .. the individual should seek out chaos ..

.. leave itself under its control .. and take it into its control .. tame it .. if you like ..

chaos by design ..

divergence .. bifurcation-enabling .. prerequisite for the emergence of novel states .. of

divergence .. the route of bifurcations

the route that paves the way for bifurcations to appear .. for bifurcations to follow .. suit ..

how do you know? .. threads nearby .. black swans hiding amidst .. them .. threads connecting time, future and past, .. annealed spacetime .. revealed .. uncovered .. sensing it .. its geometry sensed .. the traces of the attractors to be .. the paths left behind .. the paths laid out ..

chaos writhes in threads .. threads of every event to be .. attractors or not .. grasp the thread to the most illustrious attractors .. the black swan threads ..

a thought .. a (social state)--- .. a phenomenon ..

of mind .. society .. nature ..

converge .. and diverge .. the nodes in a network .. the trajectories .. the flux .. the whole .. as the whole is refined .. out of all trajectories .. sorting out .. the non-contributory out of them .. converging .. a slim and robust body .. a convergence cycle ..

then divergence .. follows .. but not wide .. but deep .. taking it (attractor?) .. a step further ..

Monday, 1 November 2010

System fulfilment, irreversibility, bifurcation, learning. Elaborating upon spontaneously emanated chaos induced thoughts.

System fulfilment, irreversibility, bifurcation, learning. Elaborating upon spontaneously emanated chaos induced thoughts. Upheaval sought and achieved. Chaotic logic at bay contravening notions of rational thinking.

You can not have order if you don't get past chaos. Emergence, reverse engineered, signifying the process underlying human efforts to understand nature's phenomena, to acquire knowledge. Understanding emergence and further have a go, with a standing chance at emulating emergence. Design implicated. Chaos creative enablement. (link).

(fulfilling .. fulfilment sought)
A guiding principle embedded in systems. System as representing the whole, and the whole satisfying the requirements of every part that is made out of. Fulfilment achieved, is sought after. Striving to achieve, the tendency within a system by seeking the state of being wholesome.

Fulfilment out of the contribution of all parts, gradually by more and more parts, out of subsystems, the subsystems the parts that comprise the whole. Parts that are represented as nodes, referred by the connectionist model. Nodes and networking contributing to a whole, a whole out of the nodes participating. The nodes, the functioning parts. Node the functioning equivalent of the part, the subsystem itself.

Node (in function), the nodes interconnected at a given time, what gives the pattern, as being dynamic, the states instantiated snapshots if the time dimension is regarded as external. Snapshot states, time dimension included, frozen incorporated spacetime, talking about spacetime windows out of space and time.

(out of the nodes already existing)
What is mentioned in Smith, R. D. (1998) 'Social Structures and Chaos Theory'

Using a connectionist model of a process (eg. Eiser, 1993) requires that we treat the phase- state as the current network location of the influence under study. The propagation pathway is not infinite but confined to orbits which follow the pre-existing pathways between various elements.[14]

.. thoughts out of that exposition brought forth, the pattern out of the orbits, the node interconnections propagate within the confines of the nodes already participating in the flow. Pre-existing pathways between pre-existing nodes. Patterns out of the flux, the network out of nodes prevailing. Their existence determine the pattern already existing, pre-existing. What ever lies out of that network made out of these nodes, is not taking into consideration for the instantiation of the pattern. It is irrelevant, non-participant even to the point of non-existing.

Attributing irreversibility.

Societies themselves prove such a point. The point of non-existence. It is hard to come to terms with it. Its virtuality of non-existence, its virtual non-existence. The new generation born within the frame of the current status and states the societies are, made out of the patterns prevailing, are impossible to unable to think past societies. Past patterns followed and adhered to, virtually non-existent, carried only in the memories of adults who even them suffer the same symptoms. It is hard even for them to come to terms with the way societies were in the past. If it wasn't for knowledge kept, in the minds of people, in books, in customs in culture, it would have been written out of existence completely. Old realms are hardly visited or forgotten, irreversibility at bay.

(new nodes .. new functioning)
Function, the succession of sequestered states in time and space each distinct from another up to a point. Point-mutations even for a point. The point, the node? It must be. John Holland's emergence, the mathematics included? Taking to the extent a bifurcation should be thought as taking place to a single point of a massively complex structure, the state it represents and that single point as by drawing annealing trajectories becomes a node, is incorporated into the flux, the flow and out of the flow the pattern. The pattern that the system exhibits, emerges.

Bifurcation equates with, learning. Enables opening new inroads for knowledge to trod, new phase space. Diverging out of the already existing nodes, the orbits that keep the flux dynamic into new realms, new phase space.

Already existing nodes, giving out the patterns prevailing and nodes which have been superseded, (not used), are fallen into disuse. Relevant phase space abandoned, no longer used.

(increasing its phase space)
Phase space as yet untrodden, incisive. Incisions further deeper into the microscales. Chaos its fractional nature, creates fractals explore fractional dimensions (deepening) (opening up the realm further) ..

Monday, 25 October 2010

Quantum and chaos.

Quantum and chaos brought together with one another? In what way? I read in John Gribbin's 'Q is for Quantum, Particle Physics from A to Z', page 391, for 'quantum leap'.

"quantum leap
The important feature of a quantum leap is that it is discontinuous transition between quantum states. For example, an electron 'in' one energy level in an atom jumps instantly into another energy level, emitting or absorbing energy as it does so. There is no in-between state, and it does not take any time at all for the leap to occur.

It does not take any time at all, absence of time. Time refuted at a deep fundamental level. Its existence as relative to the frame it is referred to, the simplest states in nature, materialising by the jump of an electron from energy level to energy level.

Jerky moves smoothed out. As the level the observer looks at, at ever decreasing scales as its field of view is continuously zoomed out, to include less and less information, spiky edges in a rough terrain gradually vanish. The details disappear. Zooming in and out, smoothing roughing fields of study, a perspective employed to explain all phenomena undergoing.

Zooming in, rough terrains appear. The information that brings forth allows to distinguish between a process and the outcomes of processes, the solid objects that appear in front of us, regardless size, shape, form dimensions as such, from a chair to earth, to sun stars and galaxies. By zooming in, the observer discriminates the process from its outcome, revealed within the time-frame it takes place, practically its history. Any object reveals itself in chunks of time discontinuously. Chunks of time including within the objects materialised. Atoms at the microscales the processes out of the nuclei-orbiting electrons interacting with nuclei-bound protons and neutrons, themselves out of processes at a deeper level, process histories as such , and by annealing their histories, they take up space (create space?). In a grander scale massive objects but nevertheless, processes themselves, out of combined chunks of time of all constituent comprising entities, the constituent histories and all the space they take up. The world of objects, a puzzle of immense proportions of discontinuous chunks of time. Time scattered, time-chunks, pieces here and there that appear uniform, smooth, continuous by virtue of residing within one of the time-chunks. Their boundaries limiting scope and perspective.

Universe, world, nature, whatever it is called, all that is, virtually discontinuous processes, continuity amenable to the eye of a beholder thanks to the limits imposed by insurmountable boundaries, what the senses have been engineered to, a cage that only imagination can escape.

Imagination and world-the-outcome of processes, at the same footing, quantum and chaos hand-in-hand.

Processes undergoing by what other than chaos, at every level imaginable. The same principle applies for all processes, despite their scale, nature-made and man-made. The discontinuity introduced by virtue of quantum mechanics, completes the picture and along with chaos provides a tool to explain all phenomena. To my mind that could be used to question the outcomes brought forth by Darwinism, the smooth or not so smooth transition of species and the survival of the fittest to discontinuous transition in speciation what goes along with the notion of habitat-bound replacement than survival of the strongest. Discontinuity that does not require class struggles. A virtual leave and let live scenario.

Wednesday, 20 October 2010

Meaning, what New Scientist magazine offers and is about ..

Meaning, what New Scientist magazine offers and is about

meaning not out of sake of the ignorant masses but for the sake of the individual, the all-surpassing unit that populates earth

(a snippet found in .. out of a burst of chaos in my mind .. a year ago .. unfinished .. but I do not have in front of me what triggered it .. and I do not know how to finish it now .. and I fear I might loose its essence .. my conscious mind interfering .. what I have right now in my mind .. what stopped me in my tracks .. is the connection of meaning .. with nature .. meaning brings us close to nature .. one with nature )

and that meaning the individual achieves goes hand-in-hand with nature. The way nature has developed or develops or will develop, or even ignoring this distinction of time, and just state the way nature develops, in a way that (is reminiscent of) affirms the tenets of Occam's razor.

science popularisers, they are not .. (servants .. servile to a cause .. science to be used and abused .. to serve vile needs .. under the grasp of the lowest instincts .. human individuals possess ..)

(ignorant masses! .. ignorance spread in societies .. perpetrated by the top echelons .. their construction based upon .. the yield of power .. )

but move the individual

not a thankless .. but a fundamental task

in the out of the fields of ignorance into ...

to become closer to nature, to be one with nature

and not for the sake

Monday, 18 October 2010

Chaos theory trashes the notions of equilibrium.

In 'Human Brain and Psyche as Complex Systems' by Gerald Schueler in page 2, under the title 'Chaos Theory', mentions..

"1. Equilibrium. One of the findings of chaos theory is that complex systems that seem to be in equilibrium are not really in equilibrium. Systems damped by friction, and driven by some kind of energy input, while appearing to be at an equilibrium state, are not really at equilibrium at all. Tiny variations are present which can send the system into chaos at any time. Complex systems, require far-from-equilibrium conditions in order to maintain self-organization or growth (Cohen & Stewart, 1994; Gleick, 1987; Kellert, 1993; Prigogine & Stengers, 1984)."

Equilibrium. May be its usefulness is past and gone. Dwindling into oblivion? A concept whose properties do not, and are not supported by the currently held knowledge. Superseded and turned obsolete by other concepts risen, and its continued use only deters a deeper exploration in the phenomena. A conceptual baggage in need of being rid off. Imperative the need to be replaced by concepts that they are more in tune and in the gist of the phenomena to be explained. In its ashes the concept of 'dynamic' emerges.

Thoughts straight out of the inability of the concept to attain a clear definition. Complex systems seem or appear to be in equilibrium but they are not. The apparent nature of equilibrium relying upon what is seen and not what lies underneath, expressed by a variable external to a system under study, one that an external observer finds appropriate and defines, befitted to the lack of means during the time of its original usage was ever thought. As the deeper probing into the underlying nature of systems, any system, has been gradually enabled, reveals its inadequacies. Redundant, likewise, nonsensical the far-from-equilibrium reference as a requirement for complex systems. The dynamic nature of complex systems under the continuous subjection to incompatible forces, a constant source of tiny variations ever ready to kickstart a bout of chaos, to test all possible outcomes to its evolution to the next state of existence.

Nevertheless, incisive the attribution to chaos of self-organization and growth, systems driven to perfection, to wholeness complete, overriding the necessity of any equilibrium.

Sunday, 17 October 2010

Continuous attractors and memory retrieval?

This extract intrigued me. It is from the abstract of the paper titled as 'Context-dependent retrieval of information by neural-network dynamics with continuous attractors', published in the journal, Neural Networks, Volume 20, Issue 6, August 2007, Pages 705-713, cited in the ScienceDirect website

"Our results suggest that keyword extraction by the neural-network dynamics with continuous attractors might symbolically represent context-dependent retrieval of short-term memory from long-term memory in the brain."

I want to toy with these ideas as they drew my attention, the former act itself, in my mind relevant to what they mentioned in their findings. Short-term memory retrieves context-dependent information from long-term memory. As I read through the paragraph, the spontaneous and instantaneous formation of short-memory, quickly linked with relevant information, the context-dependent factor, in long-term memory. Is retrieval a correct term? As, in my mind, what it actually took and takes place.

Tuesday, 12 October 2010

The world is finite. The chaotic process that spawned the universe has an end.

R.D. Smith's assertion

"A quantised space, however large, is effectively finite thus cannot provide for truly chaotic behaviour."

in 'Social Structures and Chaos Theory', article in Sociological Research Online, paragraph 3.10, stands.

What refers to continuous,

"In its most precise rendering chaos can only arise when the possibility of any given state repeating itself is potentially zero."

drawn out of the necessity of '.. any given state repeating itself is potentially zero' and ..

".. a situation in which the orbital pathway of a flow or flux can continue for an indefinitely long period of time (for eternity) without ever passing through the same point twice."

.. despite the flow been allowed to 'run for an eternity'. It should 'never pass through the same point twice'. Continuity, put down as a prerequisite for the flow to be chaotic, a flow that requires to have no end, and such an end is met at the boundaries of the very universe itself. Phase space meets its limits at the realm of quanta. That puts another twist to the saga of chaos.

The continuity of the chaotic process it is not possible, the space within which it flows is finite even though its boundaries are as enormous as the universe itself is. It is not that this enormous space is quantised which as such it makes the duration of the flow even more immensely enormous, so if it takes an eternity, by being quantised it takes double or many times that eternity but still it is finite as the boundaries of the universe are finite.

And to speak of it, the boundaries of the universe are continuously expanding that augments the space available but still it is finite even if, for a given time, but for any given time, no matter how this interval of time can be comprehended, it is still finite. To what this conclusion points to, is that for a chaotic process, or the chaotic process of the universe is not continuous. There is an end to the chaos that created this very universe. At some point there will be no more space to explore, or even a situation where the chaotic process is catching up with the expansion of the universe itself.

And to add to that, is the current phase space, which according to the account of ever diminishing phase space, as the phase space opens up, explored via the chaos-induced bifurcations, out of the pre-existing phase space, within the space that the creation of attractors has already drawn, their ultimate space available what lies deeper down to the microscales, the world of quanta, excluding from what lies out of the attractors already created, the worlds, the universe that could have been, if at a certain bifurcation in its past a different choice has been made, as by, a different cosmological constant had been chosen.

Monday, 11 October 2010

Social scientists perception of chaos. To serve their own means. Still a way to go.

Social scientists perception of chaos. To serve their own means. Still a way to go.

New ideas brought forth, as I was reading R.D. Smith's 'Social Structures and Chaos Theory', article in Sociological Research Online. In paragraph 3.10, it is mentioned

"In order to have a formal notion of structure which is consistent with the chaos theory paradigm we now need to return to a requirement so far unelaborated."

Formal notion of structure. Formalism, its journey from the means to becoming an end. It is not the formal notion of structure that is required but instead of, of formalism. What formalism is needed for, formalism as the tool to drive the human mind into learning of what nature employs in instantiating reality. Nature is already using chaos to organise itself. What is required by individuals is to unravel nature's workings in order to learn how that work is done. The individual would not tell nature how to do things, the individual would study nature, to learn how nature does things and to acquire a notion of structure as it has been put down by nature, to assist cognition. Human cognition has to devise formal notions, so the human mind will be able to comprehend how nature works. The forms are the props human mind requires in order to fathom into how nature works. Chaos is already there, whether the human mind wants it or not. It is up to the mind to understand how chaos works and not the other way around.

The requirements mentioned, it is not up to chaos to fulfill. Chaos does its job without any need for requirements, the requirements put forth are only a construct the human mind needs in order to comprehend the workings of chaos. Requirements as such it is what the mind requires to understand, to fully comprehend chaos. To elaborate the knowledge the human mind possess in order to fit with what actually happens. The tendency to see chaos as a predicting and controlling tool rather than a fundamental notion, it is what is underlying in that exposure, obstructing a clear view of what chaos is, the progress in the minds of people from chaos theory to chaos.

"In its most precise rendering chaos can only arise when the possibility of any given state repeating itself is potentially zero."

From an observer status to a controller status, what else could it come out from that statement, declaring what chaos requires in order to arise, seen as a requirement only from the perspective of the individual who has in mind that he has the upper hand in this process, seeking not its explanation for his mind to comprehend but its subjugation to its will, and as a result ignores what is already evident in a chaotic process. The possibility of any given state repeating itself, far removed by the very existence of bifurcations in the menagerie of tools in chaos, how chaos increases complexity within any given system, how does it open up new as yet uncharted phase space, phase equivalent to state, augments creates further space for new potential states to emerge.

Along with the notion of fractional space, fractal space from the macroscales to the microscales, states referred to by the nodes apparent at a certain stage in its development. All nodes present at a certain stage, the totality of all possible combinations, the totality of states possible being the phase space.

Impossible what lies outside the existing node-defined phase space, plausible-possible what still lies within the already existing phase space which is instantiated by bifurcating at any of the nodes already existing but not of any nodes outside phase space, as there are not such nodes existing.

There follows a bold assumption made, which I would require some enormous amount of reasoning to comprehend what was in the mind of the originator.

"To take the illustration of a strange attractor such as the Lorenz attractor what is needed is a situation in which the orbital pathway of a flow or flux can continue for an indefinitely long period of time (for eternity) without ever passing through the same point twice. If this condition is not met the orbit is not in fact chaotic but periodic even though highly convoluted. What this in turn means is that the phase-space in which the flux is propagated should be continuous and not quantised. A quantised space, however large, is effectively finite thus cannot provide for truly chaotic behaviour."

Eternity is not big enough in the mind of the author, the mind can include eternity within its bounds. Large, the symbol used to depict such a conceptualisation, it is within the grasp of his mind, a mere leap of imagination and the conceptualisation is achieved, it is fathomed, it is controlled, becomes finite, trivialises chaotic behaviour its essence cheapened unworthy of consideration by social scientists.

From such humble beginnings, social scientists marred with complexes of grandeur, epistemology devised to dictate individuals to the what's and why's they do what they do, their social groupings their personalities by the know-alls.

Just by chance they stumbled upon chaos and they want to bring down to their level, down to the bare necessities, what their mind can comprehend, a caricature to serve their needs to retain their position at the pedestal, instead of rising themselves up to the occasion, lowering levelling chaos down.

However it is a beginning but they have a lot of way to go but certainly not with these attitudes.

Still what it puzzles me, is the proposition of the phase-space that, it should be continuous and not quantised. What does it mean? What is the distinction between, continuous and quantised? What kind of phase-space do they have in mind?

Quantised it is the underlying all-inclusive all-pervading state existing where all phase-space resides, the ultimate ground universe-, reality-wide. Continuous from the sense of, bursts of quanta to an uninterrupted stream of energy? It is proven by quantum physics that is not an an uninterrupted stream of energy, a well-established fact.

Then what? Continuous, as the only option left, is attributed to phase-space? What would this actually mean? A continuous phase space? Phase-space primarily thought of, as all the potential states available in a system. States, as defined by the author too, as all the combinations of nodes existing, which, going along with quantised principles, are snapshots of even infinitesimal duration, collating snapshots to reveal reality. The very concept of continuity only applicable for human perception-wide world, our immediate world called classical world from the viewpoint of quantum physics.

The use of continuous for phase-space is meaningless. The assumption bold worthy of social scientists.

Saturday, 9 October 2010

Fundamental or emergent?

The only fundamental entity in the universe is energy. And not in the form that is around us now, but the form it existed before the big bang.

I do not think we are able to even grasp what energy is. The reason being that we are dealing with the emergent entities, that is all that physics is about. The carrier particles that transfer energy from place to place are emergent entities and they did not exist 'back then'. Are the energy and carrier particles conceptualisations tightly woven to one another and can not have energy without the carriers?

But physics can not penetrate deeper and offer viable solutions of what energy is.
Descriptions, of immense energy amounts before the big bang, unimaginably hot or super-dense, carry no meaning.

We can not transfer the meanings hot and dense, that have been developed by studying the emergent phenomena to that fundamental context where neither space nor time existed. Hot explained out of the necessity to describe this energy form out of human standards, is not enough to describe the state of energy and energy itself, where there were no standard to measure against. There were no living beings around. Likewise for dense when there were no particles to create the density conditions we now know.

The very meaning of energy we hold now is not applicable. A meaning that is woven around the manifestation of emergent processes while to grasp the full meaning of what energy is should be done without the use of what has emerged out of the big bang. And the only thing that can be said for sure, that carries meaning is that energy is carried or transferred or distributed via the forces of nature. The forces of nature themselves, being an emergent phenomenon itself spawned out of a primeval super-force.

which do not give

Monday, 26 April 2010

The universe .. just another of the systems that exist within it. Fundamental forces .. fictitious as all other forces in their frames of reference

"What happens when the brakes are applied? Let us look first from the frame of reference of the outside world."

I do not know why .. but I feel there is a connection there .. the .. reference of the outside world .. earth moving .. an accelerated frame of reference .. the bus itself .. by looking at it .. from outside .. having the outside as reference .. think what will happen ..when earth decelerates

though that is not the intriguing point .. as much as .. think this whole subject of inertial .. fictitious forces .. from the perspective of processes .. systems instantiating by the ..action? ..of processes .. inertial forces .. in that framework

forces .. that develop in systems .. what makes entities in systems .. to advance forth .. to move from state to state .. the forces that develop within the system .. which makes them .. unique? .. for that system alone .. fictitious forces

fictitious forces .. whose their existence .. is bounded within the system .. they were born in .. they are real .. for its occupants .. but .. un-real for .. outside the system

where are you getting it .. that even the forces .. that are at large .. in the universe .. the ones called fundamental .. they are no different .. than the fictitious forces .. the universe .. a system .. as the many systems within .. and what governs all systems .. rules universe too .. the universe .. the reference frame .. and outside the universe .. the reference of the outside world .. all the forces .. within the universe .. fundamental to us .. but still fictitious .. from the frame of reference of the outside world

forces .. apparent .. created .. within the system universe .. and their existence .. makes the universe possible .. powers up .. drives through .. all the processes .. that form galaxies .. stars .. worlds .. despite their mega-scale .. nevertheless ... fictitious .. the mega-scale .. and their growth .. explained as the growth of the objects within .. demand .. greater and greater forces .. sustained .. suspended .. by the very presence .. their existence creates

from the other point .. as they are self-creating .. they do not require .. any reservoir from which they draw .. their power .. they are supplied with ..

.. gives reason .. to the universe born out of nothing ..

Nothing .. the origin of everything. Thoughts

nothing .. the origin of everything .. any line of processes .. emanate from nothing .. and that is where .. the line of processes .. instantiate .. materialise .. when there is .. a standstill? .. when the line of processes .. has lost its momentum? .. it is not powered up? .. it is not driven up .. forward?

the idea .. that came to me .. after I watched .. this advert .. of orange mobile .. nothing .. the user have nothing to say .. to the world .. sort to speak .. to announce to the world .. what is thinking .. at a particular instance .. in the social network .. is part of .. which taking this modern activity aside .. is a state that the mind enters .. when everything in one's life .. appears empty .. a void pressing deep in one's existence .. where one can not see .. anything at all .. when what really happens .. is .. reverting? .. to its origin .. to nothing

nothing being .. the origin of the very universe .. of universes .. the quantum fluctuation .. powered by the uncertainty principle .. the seed .. the quantum seed .. that gave birth to the universe .. the big bang .. that created order .. out of nothing

bootstrapped? .. suspended ..

universe spread .. making it possible .. for countless processes .. to spring up .. themselves following the same blueprint .. originating from nothing .. the human individual .. representing such a line of processes .. which in the same way .. like its largest counterpart .. started from nothing .. itself suspended .. bootstrapped .. by the very own processes .. that gave birth to it .. suspending it .. to its origin to nothing ..

thinking .. what powers .. the bootstrapped .. suspended processes ..

or .. probably .. or potentially .. we are in that state .. the state of nothing .. and we are kept .. suspended? .. via the processes .. which we are into .. letting go of the processes .. we are left .. in the void .. at the ..mercy .. of our origin .. nothing

processes .. branching out .. from a central .. trunk .. bifurcating .. to an array .. of other processes .. each dealing with .. to a different aspect .. aspects .. dimensions .. opening up .. new areas .. for activity to emerge ..

engaging in .. the processes .. engagement failing .. or not materialising .. leaves us .. at the midsts .. of the void .. that our existence sprang out of .. and as this attribute .. is universal .. applies to all processes .. instantiating in the universe

surrounded by the void .. the .. nothing .. an idea .. that's brought forth .. in that kid's film .. where the fantasyland .. was destroyed .. by the void people stopped believing in fairy tales .. the processes that gave birth .. created fantasia .. were not engaged in .. and as a result .. fantasia was .. receding into oblivion ..

disengage .. from the processes.. and you are lost .. you are left with nothing ..

god .. the solace .. a refuge .. running to it, to shelter in .. the angst .. felt ..

Tuesday, 6 April 2010

Quantum entanglement computations from the perspective of variable connection points

Chaos, emergence, complexity concepts risen and spread in the minds of people inextricably intertwined, each one built out of the ideas that build the other, notions coming out from the, still fresh in my mind, thoughts expressed by John Holland, in his book 'emergence, from chaos to order', what is mentioned in Chapter 9 titled Variation, page 167,

"With these provisions a mechanism is described by a string over the alphabet {1,0,#}."

an alphabet referring to the elements that comprise an entity and determines its state, a universal alphabet, so simple in its inception, (1) if it exists, (0) if it does not exist and hash (#) if it "doesn't care"

By taking the current stage of the concepts developed for each of these entities, as being their current states, and as for every and any state possible, what it depends upon, therefore owes its existence, being a necessary condition for the state's own existence, and by giving rise to the state's existence, its own existence instantiated, effected therefore verified and proven. Its value (1) for existing.

For what the afore-said state does not depend upon, it doesn't exist. Its presence is not required or even its absence is a must, vital for the state's existence. Other states might require its existence, therefore though its existence is not instantiated in that case and can not be verified or proven, it can be verified and proven by other existent states. Its value (0) for non-existing.

And the "doesn't care" element of the alphabet for all other elements that can be taken as the scenery, since their being there is irrelevant to the state's existence only filling up space in the state's background. Its value (#) for "doesn't care".
And all in the context of the hierarchical structure of nature, being built by levels upon levels of entities all the states that makes such super-structure to exist.

Quantum entanglement, a special case of connections, connections in the sense .. John Holland puts it in Chapter 9, Variation. What is mentioned in the article “Sudden Death” Threatens Quantum Computing, ..

".. physicists need only figure out how rapidly sudden death can occur, then design systems that finish quantum calculations within that window."

a window .. a time-step

Entanglement, underlying nature, one of the mechanisms in its deep deep recesses. Fundamental mechanisms, its ultimate expression, a mechanism or mechanisms ruled by the very same cgp's and especially the penultimate case of cgp's, the cgp-v's .. the variable constrained generating procedures.

Constraints that generate procedures, procedures acting upon variable connection points, an ever changing landscape step-by-step, but for each time-step they are as good as acting on fixed connection points presented as a discreet time-step and in that time-step, the window referred to above, to perform the quantum calculations.

As for storing any outputs, for further use, for posterity, the notation derived and presented by John Holland in Chapter 9 Variation could provide a leeway in accomplishing the entire computation.

Treat the whole entanglement phenomenon as an emergent phenomenon, and use the angles opening up by such an approach to derive the quantum calculations, performed in a series of time-steps as the emergent phenomenon evolves.

Entanglement at the threshold of time, a time that lingers between the conundrum of existence, entanglement as such, its weird properties, a result of how we experience distance.

Distance which becomes a concept on the back of time, and that is the (horse)-back equivalent, as the distance connected it is only comprehended as a derivative of time. The time and by the time it takes, namely the speed, for a message to be transmitted. For the connection to be effected. A connection which, for all concerns it appears as violating physics, a physics developed from our only standpoint, what we have, what is allowed for us, and we can not do anything, but use it and interpret the world through it, though it looks as if it is not the only one that nature has.

What if time is not fundamental, but derived and what appears weird, run against our common sense, our physics, it is not weird at all, but a commonality that we are unable to fathom, as yet.

Thursday, 11 March 2010

Emergence, consciousness .. and physical substrates.

How can these, seemingly different notions, can be reconciled? What notions? For once is what Steven Johnson refers to in his O'Reilly network interview, on the subject of emergence..

"Emergence is what happens when the whole is smarter than the sum of its parts. It's what happens when you have a system of relatively simple-minded component parts -- often there are thousands or millions of them -- and they interact in relatively simple ways. And yet somehow out of all this interaction some higher level structure or intelligence appears, usually without any master planner calling the shots. These kinds of systems tend to evolve from the ground up."

Emergence appearing(?)out of systems of simple component parts which they interact in relatively simple ways. This interaction brings about a new structure, (or may be not a new structure, but the old structure revamped), that as a whole, possess qualities not exhibited by any of its component parts.

And the other notion?

Each neuron cell represents a state amidst a multitude of superposed states, the whole brain in a superposition status? The brain in quantum superposition?

From Jonathan CW Edwards, in 'Is Consciousness Only a Property of Individual Cells?' paper

" .... consciousness is a basic correlate of function, but a function that only certain fundamental physical substrates can subserve. To know the true function is to know the substrate."

A fundamental physical substrate that serves as the ground that consciousness arises from? What substrate this might be?

Saturday, 2 January 2010

Seeking out the depths of reality, its utter complexity within the grasp of the human brain

John H. Holland .. 'emergence from chaos to order', Chapter 5, 'Neural Nets', page 81-114, while reading through insights instantiate, glimpses flicker, pointing towards answers for questions in fundamental processes of the workings of the human brain.

in p. 86

"To construct a useful model of the CNS using this information, we begin with the idea that the activity of the CNS is described by which neurons are firing during a given time-step. Because of the uniformity of the pulses emitted, we can simply say that each neuron is either "on" (emitting a pulse) or "off" (quiescent) during a time-step."

.. the uniformity of the pulses emitted .. the basis upon which the brain works .. all the cognitive tasks undertaken .. the mind that comes out of .. the ideas, thoughts, knowledge .. all start as pulses .. uniform pulses .. indistinguishable from one another .. whose only effect is to turn a neuron 'on' or 'off'

in p. 90

"Because of its distributed nature and the simplicity of its elements, a neural net is a satisfactory vehicle for studying emergence: sophisticated behaviors emerge from the aggregation of simple actions."

simple actions, being .. the uniform pulses emitted .. and they give rise to sophisticated behaviors .. emergence

in p. 86

"We can further simplify the model by assuming that all pulses arriving within a time-step have equal effect in determining whether or not the neuron fires (in technical jargon, we ignore the phase of the pulses)."

simplifying matters for the sake of making more usable the model employed .. uniformity of pulses .. is what is only necessary .. ignoring all other aspects of the pulses-waves as amplitude, wavelength, frequency, .. phase .. coherent or incoherent .. is that allowable? .. it makes no difference .. the characteristics of one pulse from another .. for the emerging outcome? .. for the thoughts, the ideas, the mind instantiating? ..

.. or the unique features of each pulse do matter .. but at a deeper level. Each pulse, no matter the unique features it carries, is capable of eliciting .. the responses that emerge into sophisticated behaviors .. making up minds ..

.. and the unique features carried are significant at another, deeper level .. a level analogous, to what crossed my mind .. while I was contemplating .. on human resolving time compared with the resolving time of a fast electronic device.

The point - entering my mind right now - is, that the features of waves, which according to the model John H. Holland uses, namely the phase of the pulses-waves as irrelevant for the behaviors they instantiate, are what is appropriate with the reality the human brain is able to extract, engineered into the specific mechanics of the human brain, and not, for that matter, of a fast electronic device.

Equipped with the resolving time of a fast a electronic device the mind, is expected, to be different. Another reality or another aspect of reality, appearing before the eyes of the human individual. Whether, it would end up being another totally different reality or another aspect of reality, it remains to be seen.

What someone can surmise, is that the pulses-waves will be processed in the same way, posited by John H. Holland's model, namely pulses-waves being uniform, represented as simple actions which out of their aggregation, the sophisticated behaviors emerge, something that increases the complexity of reality alongside the apparent capability - or potential - of the human brain, to fathom into this deeper reality in its full extent.